البيولوجيا وعلوم الحياة

نبذة تعريفية عن “الفيروسات” وكيفية دخولها إلى الخلية

2013 ???? ??????

?.????? ?. ?????

????? ?????? ?????? ??????

????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????

?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? (Chickenpox)? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????.

?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??????.

????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???: ????? ?????? ?? ?????????.

 

??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????.

?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? : ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????.

????????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? .

 

??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? “???” ????? (Messenger RNA) ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????.

??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????.

????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????: ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???”???” ????.

 

??? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ??? “???” ???????? – ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???”???” ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????.

????? ????? ????? ??? “???” ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? “???” ??? ??? “???” ???? ??? ???????? _ ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????.

 

??? ????  ????? ??? ??????? (Poliovirus) ?????? ????? (Rhinovirus) ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? “???” ??????.

???? ?????? ???? ??? “???” ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? “???” ??? ??????? ???? «????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? “???”Polymerase) RNA-dependent RNA ).

 

?? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? “???” ???????? ?????. ???????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??? “???” ??? ??????? – ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? “???” ????????.

??????? ????? ?????? (HIV) ?????? ?? ??? (1.8) ??????? ??????? ???? ????.

??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? “???” ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? “????? ???????” (Reverse Transcriptase) ????? ??? “???” ??????? ???? ??? “???” ???????? ?????.

 

??? 1.8 ????? ?????? (HIV): ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???????.

????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????. ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? GP120 (A) ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? (B).

??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? «??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????» (HIV Protease) (C)? ?«????? ????? ???????» (D)? ?«????? ?????» (E).

???? ????? ?????? ??”???” ????????? ?????? ????? HIV (F) ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? (G) (??? ???????: ????? ???).

 

???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ???”???” ????????? ?? ??? “???” ???????? ??????.

????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? “???” ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? “???” ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??? “???” ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????.

???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????. ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????.

 

??? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? “???????” (Capsids) ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? (Smallpox) .

??? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???.

????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? (Budding) ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????.

 

?????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????.

???? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???.

 

???? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? Pkr (???????? ?? Protein Kinase RNA – activated) ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? “???” ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????. 

???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????.

?????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?????.

 

???? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? Pkr? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????.

?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? – ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???”???” ????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? – ?? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????.

???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????. ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??????.

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