البيولوجيا وعلوم الحياة

من هو الخبير في مجال الإثباتات العلمية ؟

2013 ??? ????? ?? ???????

??? ???????

????? ?????? ?????? ??????

?????????? ????? ??????

?? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????

??????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????.

??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? (Reference Manual of Scientific Evidence) ? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? 650 ???? ???????. ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????.

?????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? 1993 ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals). ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????.

?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? (Frye) ?? ??? 1923 ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ????? (Polygraph). ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? “?????? ?????” ?? ?????.

 

????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? “??????? ?????? ???????”. ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? 1975 ????? “????? ???????” ??? ????? ??????. ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? “????? ????”? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???????.

???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???.

??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? “??????” ?”???????” “????? ??????” ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????.

??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? “????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????”. ????? ?? ?? “?????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????. ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????”.

??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? “????? ??????” ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ?????.

 

?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? 29 ?????/ ?????? 1995? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????.

???? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? “???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????.

???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????”. ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????????.

?? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????.

???? ???? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???.

?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?????.

اظهر المزيد

مقالات ذات صلة

زر الذهاب إلى الأعلى
إغلاق
إغلاق