البيولوجيا وعلوم الحياة

خطوات القيام بعملية إنتاج الكائنات المعدلة وراثيا

1999 ???? ??????? ????????

???? ??? ?????? ?????

KFAS

???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????

???? ??????? ?????? ?????? – ?????? ????? – ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? DNA – ??????? ?????? – ??? ??? ?? DNA ????? ????? ???.

?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????.

???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? :

?- ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????

???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????.

?- ??? ???????

 

– ??? ??????? ?????? ??????

???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?? DNA ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????  ??????.

?? ?? ???? ??? mRNA (??????) ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? – ??? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????? – ?? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?? cDNA ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? Reverse transcriptase enzyme

???? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????RNA ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? RNA ??? DNA ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????????. ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? DNA ???????? ????? ??????? DNA polymerase enzyme (???? ????? ????????).

 

– ????? ????????? ??????

??????????? Plasmids ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? DNA.

????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? : ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? – ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????.

??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????.

????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????. ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????.

??? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? :

 

– ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? : DNA restriction enzymes

??? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? DNA ????? ??? ??? ??????  (??? 3). ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? DNA ??? ????? ?? ????? DNA ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????) ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? Recognition sequences.

 

– ??????? ????? : DNA Ligase

?? ??????? ???? ???? (???) ??? ?? DNA ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? (????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????) ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? DNA ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? DNA ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????.

 

– ?????? ????????? ?????? Hybrid plasmid amplification

????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? DNA ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???.

???? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? DNA (??? 4) ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ??????? – ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????.

??? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? Ultra – centrifugation.

 

?. ??? ???????

??? ??? ????????? ?????? – ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? – ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???? ????? ????? ????????.

 

?. ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????

???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? : _

– ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? indicator ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? (??? 5).

 

– ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? DNA hybridization  (??? 6) ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? DNA  ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????. ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? X – ray.

– ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????.

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